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Structural Disintegration and Dysfunctional Patterns

Has the entire world of physical and movement therapy gone mad? Instead of people moving toward a more natural sense of body awareness, ease and comfort, they continue to be led down the Path of the Hard Body – a cultural contrivance that has replaced chopping wood and carrying water with the vanity of the asphalt jungle gym.

“Biomechanics is going by the wayside” exclaims Thomas Meyers, Structural Integration therapist and author of Anatomy Trains. According to Meyers, the New Biomechanics remains loosely defined. Yet, it seems to have at its foundation the perspective that instead of the body hanging on the skeleton like a suit on a coat hanger, the skeleton floats in a bag of soft tissue. While both views are equally incomplete, at least the Old Biomechanics is based on 500 years of anatomical study about how muscles and bones operate. The New Biomechanics being espoused by manual therapists, trainers, and yoga teachers is as amorphous and mystifying as the structural disorders it attempts to describe.

Take Liz Gaggini’s pelvic Tilt and Shift, “the two positional possibilities that are important in pelvic girdle alignment and function.” Anterior Tilt means the top of the pelvis moves down and forward, while Posterior Tilt means the pelvis moves up and back. According to this arrangement Anterior Shift means the entire pelvis sags in front of the ankle line, while Posterior Shift means the pelvis is pushed out behind. Curiously, pelvic rotation is not included, which the Old Biomechanics considers to be a major cause of osteoarthritis of the hip.

Says Gaggini, “It is always the case in Structural Integration that we must deal with patterns in the whole.” Thus we have the central problem with both the Old and New Biomechanics. What, precisely, is the “whole?” What does a structurally integrated body look like? What are the moving parts and how are they integrated into the whole? The Old Biomechanics rotates the pelvis 45 degrees backward and draws a plum line from the ear down through the load-bearing joints of the body. This integration necessitates pulling the abdominal wall in and tucking the tailbone under.

The New Biomechanics gets around the issue by describing “integrated” as individualized postural patterns that can be freed from their fascial restrictions by the specialized knowledge of trained body workers. Meyers tells his proteges they must “seize the truth” of the New Biomechanics. “If we posit that tilt is the tilt of the pelvis on the femur, such that anterior tilt equals hip flexion, and posterior tilt equals hip extension, and we remember that pelvic shift is either a position anterior or posterior to the line of the ankle, then we get the four pelvic types [described by Gaggini].”

According to the Old Biomechanics, bipedal standing is called hip extension. Drawing the pelvis toward the thighs (by pushing the buttocks back), or the thighs toward the pelvis (by lifting the knees), is called hip flexion. The human pelvis is already tilted all the way forward in the standing position of hip extension. The New Biomechanics has taken the liberty of reversing established anatomic language and understanding of pelvic movement.

Devon 3-years copyEven more bizarre is the New Biomechanical description of the pelvis in early human development as Posterior Shift/Anterior Tilt. Says Meyers, “Favored by toddlers everywhere, the hips are pushed back but the pubic bone pulled down with hip flexion. Normal for a toddler (who has yet to develop balance in the psoas complex and deep lateral rotators), but if you see this pattern in the adult, one can suspect neurological deficiency or somatoemotional immaturity” [emphasis mine]  The absurdity of these remarks cannot be overstated.

A baby crawls with her pelvis in the quadrupedal position. When she stands up, she does so not by rotating her pelvis backward, but by profoundly curving her lumbar spine. Her pelvis must stay in the horizontal position to continue developing (ossifying) the symmetrical arched roof of the acetabulum, which is conserved across species.

Unlike the long, flexible human lumbar spine, the short, inflexible chimpanzee lumbar spine must rotate with the pelvis as one unit to stand upright. Why western science determined the human spine and pelvis are wired up like the non-human primate is an unfathomable mystery. The mistake has never been corrected and continues to inform both the Old and New Biomechanics.

goatgirl copy 2In no way are toddler hips “pushed back” and the pubic bones “pulled down with hip flexion.” Rather, like many other living forms she is unfolding from her center, her sacrum. At first her lumbar curve is very acute, but as she unfolds further she lengthens between chest and pelvis, keeping her head balanced over her horizontal sacral vertebrae.

Nikelle WW posture copyBy adulthood she has fully unfolded into the wide-radius lumbar curvature of natural female posture. Her abdominal wall is still held out – never in – but now the leading edge of abdominal curvature is at her midriff, between breasts and navel.

After childbirth her breasts are slightly lower and her abdominal wall slightly expanded. Due to the spiral nature of the female body, pelvic and spinal dynamics do not change from the pregnant to non-pregnant state.

Two surfers running into the sea with their surfboards

The male spine has only two wedged lumbar vertebrae (and discs), while the female has three. Wedging means the vertebrae are taller in front and shorter in back, which is what forms the curvature. Males have only two horizontal sacral vertebrae (S1-S2), while females have three (S1-S3). These differences result in less curvature in the male lumbar spine, an exceedingly important reality unrecognized by either the Old or New Biomechanics. However, males do have lumbar curvature and a forward placed abdominal wall.

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A strange and destructive body-dysphoria predominates in modern exercise and therapy systems, which I believe has its roots in white male supremacy. It is probably no accident that the physical culture of male body-building coincided with European and American hunters and anthropologists bringing back photographic images of native bodies. The most obvious way to distance themselves from “savages” was to abhor the native belly.

founding fathersPrior to this, men had no problem with the abdominal wall, which was held proudly forward in natural human posture. Like all animals, the human body develops into a particular conformation while moving and breathing naturally under the forces of  gravity.

monksBuddhist monks provide another example of effortless human posture when the belly is relaxed, the chest lifted, and the chin pulled in and down.

Pilatesmummy tummy yoga momYet, by the 1930s control of the abdominal wall was the reigning paradigm in western culture and medicine. While Joseph Pilates proclaimed the value of extreme abdominal exercise, physical therapists Henry and Florence Kendall defined a 90-degree backward rotation of the pelvis as “neutral.” Today, male body-dysphoria continues to reign supreme in  yoga studios, gymnasiums, and physical  and manual therapies. The “mummy tummy” is regarded with disgust, and young mothers are resorting to extreme measures, including devastating abdominoplasty, to achieve the flattened six-pack abs idolized in body-dysphoric culture.

Excessively contracting and chronically holding in the belly has serious implications for female pelvic organ support. The urogenital triangle of the pelvic floor (where the vagina is located) is closed off in the male, so they are not subject to bladder prolapse. Rectal prolapse is another matter however, which may be more prevalent in males than females.

Male body-dysphoria is exemplified by a gut that is chronically contracted and tightly pulled in. When the abdominal wall is flexed in this way, posture 1 (1)the pelvis rotates backward and the pelvic floor becomes chronically tense. A person has no choice but to reverse natural breathing. Instead of allowing the abdominal wall to expand forward on the in-breath and passively fall back on the out-breath, the chest rises on the in-breath and the belly is pulled further in. Over time the muscles of the chest wall and shoulder girdle hypertrophy, leading to the classic barrel chest of the body-dysphoric male.
Importantly, instead of the center of mass of the body being distributed evenly over the arched roof of the acetabulum, it is now positioned over the top, front aspect of the joint, where virtually all adult-onset hip disease is known to occur.

Alarmingly, body-dysphoric males educated in the New Biomechanics are teaching doctors and therapists a distorted and unintelligible anatomy. Hip flexion, which also involves elongation of gluteus maximus, is now being called “hip extension.” While anterior displacement of the entire pelvic girdle (slouch posture) is now “hip hyperextension.”

Posture 2 (1)The deceptive and harmful practices of orthopedic surgery allowed a conceptual vacuum to be filled by alternative anatomic models based on deficient standards and partial  truths. Orthopedics claims ownership to 500 years of anatomical understanding, yet has squandered its knowledge in favor of fallacious imaging technology and reductionist surgical dogma.

Birthing large-headed offspring increased biomechanical function and unfolded the female body further into the human form. Failing to recognize this flowering, and deeming female spinal curvature pathologic, is at the foundation of male body-dysphoria. The New Biomechanics describes natural female proportions as “anterior tilt” and “hip flexion”, when in fact the ability to extend through the hip and knee by fully extending the pelvis and lumbar spine is uniquely and essentially human. The male-dysphoric body has lost its ability to double extend, and is held chronically in hip flexion,  as evidenced by an anterior shift of the head and torso. The resulting shortening and thickening of the iliopsoas tendon is a precursor to degenerative hip disease.

36. golden mean copyIt is a profound truth that humans are horizontal creatures from the hips down and vertical from the waist up. The female of our species has expanded the human design further into the proportions of the Fibonacci spiral. The same Golden Proportion found in sunflowers, galaxies, and inherently registered as beauty by the human eye.

Thomas Meyers also tells us agriculture is dying and that, “We’re not all going back to live on an organic farm and work hard.” Perhaps he is unaware of the current trend in young, physically fit, and happy urban farmers doing precisely that. Meyers asks, “What does a child need to know to make it on this planet in terms of their physical movement?”

Here  is my short list:OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

  • Beware of male body-dysphoria, which pervades modern culture
  • Ignore the New Biomechanics
  • Perfect your handstand
  • Plant a garden
  • Trust in the natural design of the human body
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Have you heard about the newest vaginal exercise craze? Meet Kim (click here) who lifts weights, surfboards, and bunches of bananas with her pelvic floor muscles.

Vaginal Weightlifting

Vaginal Weightlifting

If you find yourself gasping in horror, rest assured you have good instincts. Yet, consider what a stunning example this is of the marvelous design of the female body! How do you suppose Kim is able to keep the surfboard lifted? Is the pelvic floor really that strong?

I bet you guessed it, especially in light of our recent observations about Judith Aston’s body. What a perfect contrast! While Judith chronically holds her midriff in, leading to all sorts of weakness and malalignment, Kim’s midriff is naturally held out, which sends intraabdominal pressure through her torso in a natural way. She is a Whole Woman goddess!

She is also a performer who has no clue that holding her vagina open with a jade egg is inviting internal pressures to push surrounding organs into her vaginal space. In normal anatomy, when the pelvis is weight loaded from above, the vagina is a closed, airless space. Kim is holding the surfboard, not by squeezing a circular contraction (kegel), but by expanding her lumbar curvature, puffing out her midriff, and closing her pelvic diaphragm side-to-side with such force that she can lift the board. Long muscles are strong muscles. What a miraculous design!

However, it appears that Kim does not always keep natural posture while lifting, and therefore may be unaware of the mechanics of her self-locking vagina. She is young and the natural dynamics of childhood have been largely preserved, which has served her well. There are limits however, and  we do not know what level of bruising and tissue damage is being sustained.

nutation

Pelvic Nutation

In promoting her tricks, Kim gives no explanation about what a “strong” pelvic floor actually is. Conventional wisdom tells us it is a contraction rather than an elongation, but trust your WW eyes! When her abdominal wall is lengthened, her pelvic wall is equally lengthened. Vaginal nutation is occurring, where the back vaginal wall clamps sharply down against the front vaginal wall.

The egg is wedged over her horizontal pubic bones, which are acting like a pulley to change the force vector from vertical to a right angle. This is the only way the mechanics can work! More than anything, Kim gives us an exquisite example of the strength of the circular bony pelvis! She is also proof of the pelvic wall’s amazing ability to manage tremendous internal pressures. It can only do this through stiffening. The body walls stiffen by expanding, not contracting.

As far as vaginal kung fu is concerned, because in certain positions her pelvic wall is not closing completely, she’s having to supplement side-to-side closure with a circular contraction. Some level of vaginismus may be the result. Strong enough to break a penis? Who knows?

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Judith Aston, Kegels, and the “Pelvic Floor”

I have been asked once again for my commentary, this time on a pelvic floor exercise created by Judith Aston, dancer turned movement expert and exercise coach. (http://www.astonkinetics.com/blog) My response is that the exercise is nothing but a glorified kegel, and her basic concepts mainstream. Judith has a lovely, lithe dancer’s body, but from the Whole Woman perspective her posture and movement concepts are very conventional and, shall we say, superficial. By that I mean she uses phrases like “helps with alignment of the trunk” instead of helping us understand exactly how and why.

She seems to understand that a contracted belly is not good for prolapse, yet it is so interesting to watch how she simply denies she is doing exactly that. As she raises her head and knees, and tilts her pelvis back, she is certainly contracting her abdominal wall – in plain sight! In order for the pelvis to tilt backward, the abdominal wall must pull it back by contracting. She can pat her tummy and tell us, “See, I’m keeping my belly soft”, because her skin has loosened with the backward rotation of her pelvis. However, her muscles are tight. This is simple biomechanics, yet people like Aston keep the mystique going by literally fooling us with doublespeak.

The digging in with her fingertips and lifting her bladder will have no effect on prolapse. Our bipedal body develops while moving under the forces of gravity. Importantly, the prolapsed bladder must move forward, not up. This is the danger of coming from a conventional framework. Not surprisingly, her body reveals the very structural problems that lead to  prolapse and incontinence.

Judith has spent her whole life cultivating a small ‘inner corset’ at her midriff. She often wears wide belts just under her breasts. When that area is chronically pulled in, you have no choice but to become a chest breather, which is the opposite of natural breathing. Now, with every in-breath intraabdominal pressure is pushing the pelvic organs toward the outlet instead of pinning them into position at the  front of the body.

JudithAston2I call the stomach and liver “postural organs”.  Where do you suppose her abdominal organs, which have been squeezed out of their positions in her midriff area, have gone?

Hint: Look how large and rounded her lower belly is.

This is a classic prolapse case, which we see time and again. Pelvic organ prolapse is not just about the pelvic organs. In many cases the abdominal organs have been pushed down, and in turn have pushed the pelvic organs back from the lower abdominal wall. I would be very surprised if she weren’t symptomatic.

The midriff cannot chronically be held in without developing kyphosis (curvature in the upper back) over time. Judith has staved it off for a long time through all her lengthening work, but you can see that her head is starting to fall in front of her body, which will continue as she ages.

Aston is very beautiful, charismatic, and has some good ideas. It is unfortunate however, that she is teaching women about pelvic health.

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Barton A Serrao C Thompson J Briffa K Transabdominal ultrasound to assess pelvic floor muscle performance during abdominal curl in exercising women. International Urogynecology Journal 26: 1789-1795 2015

A student from my Whole Woman Practitioner Training course recently sent me the above study for my observations and commentary. Of course there were the usual omissions and misconceptions of poorly designed studies that fill volumes in the urogynecology literature.

Image_011

Figure 1

For example, childbearing (parity) was found to be the only risk factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), which 60% of subjects reported as being problematic. Yet, episiotomy was not considered to be a variable, even though midline episiotomy is a known risk factor in the development of SUI, and 75% of subjects with SUI were parous. Additional omissions included hysterectomy, c-section, incontinence procedures, and vaginal surgeries. Far more disturbing, however, is the fallacious “3D” imaging technology being used in these kinds of studies.

Welcome to the virtual reality of 3D medical ultrasound, which uses many of the volume rendering algorithms and technologies developed for the motion picture industry at Pixar Animation Studios in California, USA.

This astonishingly complex computer science is based on how a rendered volume of 2-dimensional images emits, reflects, absorbs, or occludes light. Light propagation algorithms are used to fill in the missing volume data to create a “3D” picture. Shadowy 2D ultrasound images are miraculously re-constructed to reveal fetal faces, heart valves, and bile ducts. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to 3D ultrasound imagining beyond the shadows, noise, and inconsistent data recognized by the industry.

Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) for imaging the pelvic floor in “real time” is accomplished by placing a curved transducer at the pubic hairline of a patient who is positioned on her back with knees bent. The transducer sends out an array of high-pitched sound beams through her pelvis from front to back. The raw beam data is captured in 3 polar coordinates, i.e., two angles describing the direction away from the transducer, and the depth of the tissue boundary that is reflecting the sound echo. This data must be converted by software to Cartesian coordinates (x-y axis) in order to be displayed. Multiple 2D images are instantly reconstructed again and again on a graphics card to give the illusion of movement in real time.

US 3

Figure 2

Figure 2 was taken from an industry video of a male contracting his pelvic floor. The ultrasound transducer has been placed horizontally at his pubic hairline. The abdominal wall is at the top of the frame, and the bladder is the large black circle in the middle. The white band at the bottom of the image is described as the pelvic floor. When the patient is asked to contract his pelvic floor muscles the floor appears to elevate, lifting the base of his bladder as well.

However, the image and interpretation are utterly deceptive. When the transducer is placed horizontally on the lower abdominal wall, it is industry standard that the images reflected on the monitor are in the transverse plane. If you were looking up or down through your torso, you would be viewing the transverse plane of your body.

When the transducer is turned 90 degrees to vertical the image is derived from the sagittal plane, or looking through the pelvis from one side to the other. TAUS does not routinely capture images from the frontal plane, which looks at the pelvis from front to back.

US 5

Figure 3

Figure 3 was captured from another  “real time” video of a female asked by her physical therapist to contract her pelvic floor. When she contracts, her pelvic floor and bladder appear to lift up in the frontal plane. This movement is described by the clinician as, “The pelvic floor elevating the base of the bladder.” The patient is told she is doing a “good job” contracting her pelvic floor and lifting up her bladder.

TAUS gives the impression that the pelvic floor is moving up toward the head, and this is how the images are interpreted by physical therapists. In actuality, this structure is moving forward toward the lower abdominal wall. The reason the vagina and cervix cannot be visualized is because the image field has been sliced through a particular volume, and rendered to show only the bladder and pelvic floor. Removing regions that are not of interest in order to gain a clear view of features normally occluded is called “clipping”. Clipping tools are standard features in commercial 3D ultrasound systems.

TAUS

Figure 4

Data registration is the process of transforming different imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, into the same reference frame to achieve as much information about the underlying structure as possible. Shockingly, much of that data is based on the perspective of the “anterior pelvic plane”, an erroneous orientation of the standing human pelvis institutionalized by orthopedics. Slice and volume rendering for 3D ultrasound has been combined with standard Cartesian medical data from CT and MRI to create what is called “simultaneous, multi-volume ray casting.” The resulting image is based on a 500 year-old anatomical misconception of the actual position of the human pelvis. While this may not be an issue when imaging an ovarian cyst, it becomes nothing less than fraudulent when imaging the “pelvic floor.”

The structure that is “lifting” in Figures 2 & 3 is actually the pelvic wall moving the front rectal wall forward. However, the circular contraction of the vaginal sphincter also pulls the bladder backward toward the front vaginal wall. The net result is a posterior bladder wall that is displaced slightly upward with pelvic contractions instead of moved forward toward its natural position behind the lower abdominal wall.

Figure 4 clearly shows the error of viewing the transverse plane as the frontal plane. Image B even measures the “lift” of the pelvic floor. Yet, notice there is no corresponding movement of the bladder toward the abdominal wall.

Physical therapists are using transabdominal ultrasound to show a deceptive and deleterious view of pelvic anatomy. This is not the only fraudulent imaging technology being widely utilized by the medical system. So-called “3D” CT scans of the pelvis are artificially rendered to reinforce an antiquated and erroneous view of pelvic orientation upon which many orthopedic hip surgeries are based. Physical therapists who teach kegel exercises using TAUS as a feedback mechanism are being hoodwinked by an unconscionable industry, and in return are hoodwinking their patients.

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Dear Cara – or -The Problem of Wiberg

Dear Cara,

My book, Save Your Hips, does talk about dysplasia, a concept first put forth in 1939 by Gunnar Wiberg. By this time, radiology was well established and the practice of orthopedics focused primarily on bones. Throughout the previous century a deep level of understanding had been centered on imbalances in the soft tissues surrounding the joint as the initial, fundamental pathology in common hip disease.

I believe The Problem of Wiberg (I just coined this phrase) to be the tipping point in changing current understanding of chronic hip disease.

Center Edge Angle of Wiberg

Center Edge Angle of Wiberg

Wiberg saw on AP radiograph that some acetabulae provide less coverage to the femoral head than others. Working with impressive 2D images that were easy to manipulate mathematically, he produced a theory stating that at a certain point in his diagnostic parameter, called the center edge angle of Wiberg (CEA), a hip could be considered dysplastic or not.

The CEA contains a large margin of error, however, because it does not take into account the major musculoskeletal movement that positions the acetabular roof over the femoral head which is, of course, sacral nutation (i.e. lordosis). When we lie supine for a standard AP radiograph, the femoral head moves slightly up and out of its socket. When we stand up, the femoral head moves down and medially. The hip joint follows the sacrum in this movement. Therefore, none of the images Wiberg was working with gave a true representation of how much of the weight-bearing joint was actually covered by the acetabular roof. No doubt he saw some very abnormal joints. But his parameter is largely erroneous because it measures spacial relationships in a non-weight-bearing position. This wouldn’t be a problem if the joint didn’t radically change from supine to standing…but it does! Wiberg and all the diagnosticians after him never really knew from an AP radiograph which hips were going to be covered-enough as the lumbar spine extended with standing. There are other imaging technologies today, but no one has wanted to confront The Problem of Wiberg. Therefore the images are digitally manipulated to give a standard AP view of the pelvis (“anterior pelvic plane”).

Crazy, but true. This is what Save Your Hips is all about.

But what were Wiberg and others through the century seeing in a dysplastic acetabulum? That it is “shallow” and “oval-shaped”, instead of more circular (it is actually a spiral, which my daughter, who is also my artist, and I realized at the same moment).

Dysplastic Acetabulum

Normal Acetabulum

The only possible gravitational dynamic capable of creating such an acetabular shape is bearing the center of mass on the front aspect of the joint. One bears the COM in this way by flattening lumbar curvature while weight-bearing. The degree to which the lumbar spine is flattened from its natural, wide-radius curvature, is the same degree the femoral head is moved up and laterally.

It is also true that there is another, far less common, condition where the femoral head has been held slightly out of the joint from birth or early childhood. Thus, we have a true developmental dysplasia, and also an acquired (degenerate) condition. Spinal and/or pelvic obliquity (scoliosis) can also cause the hip joint to twist and elongate.

So how should a thirty or forty-year-old who has new-onset or slowly progressing hip pain with radiologic signs of dysplasia be categorized? You would not be able to determine (other than by history) which hip dysplasia was acquired and which was developmental. The trained eye, however, would be able to tell by subtle differences in the bones themselves. But this distinction is not studied and therefore not mentioned in orthopedic literature. It is all classified as developmental.

Acquired dysplasia causes the anterior aspect of the symmetrical, arched acetabular roof to (1) stretch – as gravity pulls the joint downward, elongating the acetabulum like taffy, and (2) apply bone to what becomes the anterior-superior aspect of the acetabulum in the counternutated position (lumbar curve flattened). This area becomes thickened and protruding as it tries to cover and protect the joint.

Normal Acetabulum

Dysplastic Acetabulum

The process of stretching and bone deposition at the anterior-superior aspect of the joint is probably largely responsible for other popular orthopedic theories, acetabular retroversion and pincer FAI, which describe the same architectural characteristics. This is why I describe in my book how orthopedics creates new diseases out of thin air.

To convolute matters further, the practice of orthopedics believes this dysplastic area to be the weight-bearing roof of the normal acetabulum, due to a 500 year-old misconception of pelvic orientation in the bipedal position.

Orthopedics has used flawed, circular logic to justify the mutilation of millions of hips.

Which kind of dysplasia do you believe you have, Cara?

Wishing you well,
Christine

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PAO – A Devastating Operation

Reciting the words spoken by William Harris in 1986, orthopedic surgeons persist in their assertions that “Primary hip osteoarthritis (OA) is extremely rare.”1 These doctors continue to claim that “Up to 90% of young patients (<50 years of age) that develop OA of the hip have an underlying structural problem, which in half the cases is dysplasia.”2

A diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is based on the center edge angle of Wiberg3, which is calculated from standard anterior-posterior (AP) radiographs. To obtain the CE angle, a vertical line is drawn through the center of the femoral head, and another to the lateral edge of the ‘sourcil’. (Figure 1)
Figure 1

The sourcil, a French term meaning ‘eyebrow’, is a projection of the anterior-superior acetabular wall. It is a 2-dimensional contrived parameter that the practice of orthopedics actually believes to be the load-bearing aspect of the acetabulum. In reality, the sourcil does not exist as reflected on pelvic x-rays. Its lateral edge, often used to diagnose ‘pincer impingement’, is subject to change with the slightest rotation of the pelvis, as more of the arched acetabular roof comes into view. (Figure 2)
Figure 2

Moreover, the entire AP radiograph, taken in the supine position, is a faulty representation of how the femoral heads are actually contained within the acetabulum. When supine, lumbar curvature flattens and the femoral heads move slightly up and laterally. When standing with lumbar curve in place, the femoral heads move down and medially. There is no way to calculate to what extent individual pelvic rotation will change the CE angle, a configuration derived strictly from the supine x-ray. Yet, it does not matter because orthopedic surgeons are only interested in treating DDH surgically.

After a decade of disastrous results treating dysplasia with arthroscopic surgery to “repair” labral tears4, the standard of care has become the periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). Surgeons believe the goal of treatment “should be the restoration of hip anatomy as close to normal as possible.”5 PAO is the preferred technique “because of its balance between minimal exposure, complications, and ability to provide optimal correction.”6

In reality, orthopedics has an extremely inaccurate view of pelvic orientation, and rather than restoring normal anatomy, PAO changes the pelvis to a configuration that does not occur in nature. Drawn from centuries of misperception, orthopedics believes “Two strong osseous columns of bone surround the acetabulum, transmitting the stresses between the trunk and lower extremities.”7 (Figure 3)

Figure 3 The most current orthopedic literature proclaims that PAO “preserves the posterior column of the acetabulum and therefore allows early weight-bearing post-operatively.”8

Actually, in the standing body the pelvic inlet is in a vertical position, and the so-called bony “columns” are horizontal, not vertical. In 1955 it was recognized that gravitational forces are carried around the linea terminalis (circular pelvic inlet) and distributed onto the femoral heads.9 (Figure 4)
Figure 4

Surgeons contend, “The pelvic ring and outlet are not disrupted by PAO”10, yet anyone who has ever seen a post-PAO x-ray knows the fallaciousness of such statements. Another selling point of the PAO is that, “It can be performed through one incision without violation of the abductors, thus enhancing recovery.”11 The following summary of the steps in the soft-tissue dissection and exposure prior to the actual osteotomy illuminates the devastating and irreversible trauma that accompanies PAO.12

  1. External oblique incision and exposure of iliac crest.
  2. Subperiosteal iliacus dissection.
  3. Detachment of sartorius origin and inguinal ligament attachment through anterior superior iliac spine osteotomy.
  4. Incise fascia of tensor fascia lata muscle.
  5. Dissect tensor fascia lata from intermuscular septum.
  6. Exposure of lateral rectus femoris muscle belly and medial retraction to identify distal hip capsule.
  7. Release reflected head and direct head of rectus femoris.
  8. Incise fascia of capsular extension of iliacus muscle and dissect muscle exposing entire anterior hip capsule.
  9. Subperiosteal dissection of pubic root and entrance into iliopectineal bursa.
  10. Insert Hohmann retractor into pubis, flex hip, and retract psoas muscle. Overly vigorous traction may injure femoral nerve.
  11. Complete dissection of anterior hip capsule and interval between psoas tendon sheath and hip capsule.
  12. Incise periosteum of pubis and perform subperiosteal anterior and posterior pubic dissection reflecting the obturator membrane from the inferior pubis.
  13. Reflect iliopectineal fascia from iliopectineal line.
  14. The iliac nutrient artery located anterior to the distal sacroiliac joint should be cauterized and sealed with bone wax.

The next step is the osteotomy itself, whereby the acetabulum is sawn in three places and rotated with the intention of better covering the femoral head by the acetabular roof. The established maneuver in PAO is to turn the acetabular fragment into flexion, lateral tilt, and medial rotation. (Figure 5)
Figure 5

“Every effort should be made to orient the acetabular sourcil in a horizontal position relative to the weight-bearing zone of the femoral head. The anterior and posterior walls of the acetabulum should be positioned so that the posterior wall is lateral to the anterior wall.”13

One of the great medical outrages of the 21st century is that what these surgeons are trying to reproduce is not normal anatomy, but the misconstrued reflection of the 2D pelvic x-ray. In the flesh-and-blood standing pelvis, the posterior wall is medial to the anterior wall, due to the oblique nature of the pelvis from the wide anterior superior iliac spines in front, to the more narrow ischial tuberosities in back. (Figure 6)

Figure 6

It is also a tragic irony that the goal of PAO is to get the “femoral head centered under the acetabular roof”14 when this is the natural biomechanical result of sitting, standing, walking, and running with a wide-radius lumbar curvature.

Reinhold Ganz, the orthopedic surgeon who popularized the PAO, recently reported that a 10-year follow-up revealed one-third of his PAO patients had developed femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) as a result of the operation.15 It is logical to assume this would cause orthopedic surgeons to pause and reconsider the long-term benefits of the surgery. Instead, the prevalence of PAO is increasing exponentially. Only now, FAI surgery is being routinely added as an adjunct to the PAO operation. “[Hips] are routinely examined intraoperatively and a femoral neck plasty is performed to maintain or enhance motion and to prevent post-PAO acetabulofemoral impingement.”16

Another recent source tells us, “The longest follow up of PAO to date shows a survivorship, defined as not yet requiring THR or arthrodesis, of 60% at 20 years.”17 These are terrible odds, yet even post-PAO patients seem to be in denial about the realities of the surgery, often encouraging others to submit to the operation. Online support groups serve as funnels, delivering scores of naive victims into the hands of orthopedic hip surgeons.

The theory of acetabular dysplasia has not been challenged since Gunnar Wiberg published his dissertation on the subject in 1939. No one questions that a rudimentary geometric angle drawn onto a 2D x-ray may have no correlation with the reality of the standing body. Or worse, that the natural depression in the front acetabular rim (Figure 7)

Figure 7 is often mistaken for dysplasia and reduced coverage of the femoral head.18 There is no consensus among orthopedic surgeons whether patients with dysplasia benefit from arthroscopy, and what the exact indications for labral repair should be.19

Too often the progression of surgically managed dysplasia is arthroscopy > PAO > THR. Young age is a major risk factor for revision THR, yet untold numbers of post-PAO patients in their teens and twenties are receiving total hips. Many of these surgeries are being conducted in out-patient settings, for which no public records are required to be kept.

The periacetabular osteotomy should be considered a rescue operation to be utilized in the most severe cases of disease and birth defect. The natural history of mild and moderate hip dysplasia has yet to be defined. Moreover, surgeons know “It does seem possible to live a long and asymptomatic life with mild or moderate hip dysplasia.”20


Notes:

1 Perry K Trousdale R Sierra R Hip dysplasia in the young adult. The Bone and Joint Journal 95-B(11):21-25 2013
2 Ibid
3 Zou Z et al Optimization of the position of the acetabulum in a Ganz periacetabular osteotomy by finite element analysis. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 31: 472-479 2013
4 Jackson T Watson J LaReau J Domb B Periacetabular osteotomy and arthroscopic labral repair after failed hip arthroscopy due to iatrogenic aggravation of hip dysplasia. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy June 13 2013 [Epub ahead of print]
5 Perry 2013
6 Ibid
7 Callaghan J Rosenberg A Rubash H The Adult Hip Lippincott-Raven 1998 p.57
8 Perry 2013
9 Davies JW Man’s assumption of the erect posture, its effect on the position of the pelvis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 70(5): 1012-1020 1955
10 Perry 2013
11 Ibid
12 Zaltz I How to properly correct and to assess acetabular position: an evidence-based approach. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 33(1): S21-S28 2013
13 Ibid
14 Ibid
15 Albers C et al Impingement adversely affects 10-year survivorship after periacetabular osteotomy for DDH. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 471(5): 1602-1614 2013
16 Ibid
17 Perry 2013
18 Vandenbussche E et al Hemispheric cups do not reproduce acetabular rim morphology. Acta Orthopaedica 78(3): 327-332 2007
19 Colvin A Harrast J Harner C Trends in hip arthroscopy. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 94: e23(1-5) 2012
20 Jacobsen S Adult hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Acta Orthopaedica 77(324) 2006

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A Different Perspective on Hip Pain

Christine Kent, RNIt is a lot to take in and process that the practice of orthopedic surgery has an inaccurate perspective on the anatomy of the hip. And that the surgeries for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), developmental dysplasia (DDH), and osteoarthritis of the hip are often based on fallacious imaging studies and erroneous diagnoses.

Yet, that is the place we must start if we are to come to the higher understanding that common degenerative disorders of the hip are preventable and best treated by non-surgical means.

In chronic hip disorders, where is the pain and where, exactly, is the disease located? Patients most often experience pain deep in the groin, which radiates around the hip to the lower back. Surgeons insist the disease is usually focused on the anterior-superior aspect of the labrum and bony acetabulum, while 19th century orthopedists verified that it is almost always located in the soft tissues surrounding the joint.

Working with this conundrum gives valuable insights into the true cause of chronic hip disease, and why surgical treatments so often lead to disastrous long-term outcomes.

Figure2.4 copyFirst we must agree that when standing with a wide-radius lumbar curvature, the pelvis does not exist in the ‘anterior pelvic plane’ of the classic orthopedic paradigm. Rather, in this position the pubic bones are underneath the body like straps of a saddle, and the anterior superior iliac spine is located just above the crease where the abdominal wall meets the thigh. A comparison of the chimpanzee and the human skeleton illustrates this point (Figure 1).

Acetabulum2When the pelvis is fully ‘nutated’, or rotated forward, the arched acetabular roof is perfectly symmetrical from front to back (Figure 2). Just behind the human acetabulum sits the ischial tuberosity (sit bone), which along with the acetabulum, forms the most massive area of the bony pelvis.

cow1This orientation of the arched roof of the hip joint occurs in all other mammals (Figure 3 – cow acetabulum). If the pelvis were not in this position, gravity would cause the acetabular roof to form a shape other than a symmetrical half circle. And indeed, this is what happens when the body is held in chronic ‘counternutation’, with the tailbone tucked under and the pelvis rotated slightly backward.

Acetabulum1The forces of gravity cause re-modeling of bone at what is now the anterior-superior aspect of the acetabulum. In a pelvis that is rotated backward, the load-bearing roof of the joint has moved to the front of the acetabulum. Counternutation of the pelvis causes the femoral head to be held slightly up and out of its socket. Over time, the acetabulum becomes oblong in shape (Figure 4) and its fibrocartilage labrum hypertrophies, or expands, which is the body’s attempt to give better coverage to the joint.

This condition is diagnosed as ‘dysplasia’, for which the highly morbid peri-acetabular osteotomy is often indicated. Imaging studies may show the femoral head being held slightly up and out of its socket, yet most surgeons are completely unaware that the heads move down and medially (toward each other) when the patient climbs off the radiology table and stands upright. If the femoral head is still located slightly up and out of the joint, shortened and contracted ligaments are holding it there.

205Similar radiographic illusions are used to diagnose FAI. Countless surgeries have been performed for ‘pincer’ FAI based on AP radiographs such as Figure 5. The bony protrusion (circled) seen in this x-ray has no correlation with the actual architecture of the acetabular roof. The two-dimensional radiograph, taken at an angle that looks up into the pelvis, projects the acetabular wall laterally, when in fact it is rotated down and medially in the standing body. Pincer impingement, as described by Reinhold Ganz, is a figment of the collective imagination of orthopedic hip surgeons.

Humans have a choice whether to sit, stand, and move with the arched acetabular roof forming either a symmetrical half circle, or a lopsided oval. Contemporary hip surgeries attempt to address the symptoms and not the cause of chronic hip pain.

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Christine Kent, RNAbout the Author –
Christine Kent, RN, is the author of Save Your Hips – Heal Hip Pain Naturally and Avoid Dangerous Orthopedic Surgery (Whole Woman Press, 2013). She is also the author of Saving the Whole Woman, Natural Alternatives to Surgery for Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Urinary Incontinence (2nd ed. Bridgeworks, 2007) as well as producer of seven DVDs. She is CEO of Whole Woman Inc., committed to researching and developing non-surgical alternatives to chronic medical conditions common to women. Her books and DVDs are available at www.wholewoman.com/store.



No way!If you are a young, active person with a medical condition and given a choice between

  1. A surgical procedure with known crippling effects, or
  2. Commit to a comprehensive lifestyle change that would restore you to health,

it would be no contest, right?

Yet, young and old alike are choosing to undergo dangerous and experimental hip surgeries because they have no idea how misconceived and out of control the orthopedics industry has become. Their doctors certainly are not going to tell them, because for generations, orthopedic students have been effectively blinded by a highly biased medical education system.

SurgeryThe orthopedist’s perspective on hip pain and hip disease is confined to a small surgical specialty that has been the subject of a century of erroneous theoretical discourse and increasingly dangerous practice.

The public has been led to believe that new diseases have been recently discovered, which can only be treated surgically. These operations employ advanced fiberoptic and robotic technologies, all of which are based on imaging data that does not accurately reflect the true anatomy of the hip.

These are heavy charges to level against the most powerful field of medicine, yet a sense of urgency is called for in revealing the state of orthopedics today.The reason these issues have not been brought to light sooner is because of a surgical paradigm so carefully crafted that the media have been unable to decipher the convoluted rationale of modern hip surgery.

Orthopedics was not always a surgical specialty. Doctors fought long and hard throughout the 19th century to keep orthopedics a therapeutic and biomechanical practice. These physicians were deeply knowledgeable about chronic diseases of the hip, and their treatments were sound, logical, and successful. But a certain faction was determined to steer the practice in the direction of surgery.

Humanity has always required surgeons. Legs occasionally needed to be amputated, and dead fetuses extracted from the womb. In early times it was only reasonable to call in the town butcher to perform the operation, for who else was more familiar with muscles, ligaments, and bones?

These men could not be called ‘Doctor’ because they were not physicians, so they were called ‘Mister’ instead. Treatment of injuries sustained by soldiers in the Civil War helped blur the lines between doctor and surgeon, and the ways in which certain war injuries were ingeniously treated with gold nails or silver wire impressed both the medical community and the public at large.

Surgery has always been associated with courage, skill, and prestige, yet not all doctors were interested in performing surgery. Those who were became a privileged class of professionals who changed the course of Western medicine. Orthopedics was completely transformed between the 19th and 20th centuries, and no place was this change more dramatic than in how common diseases of the hip were conceptualized, diagnosed, and treated.

How degenerative hip disease was described and understood completely changed from a disorder of soft tissues surrounding the joint, to a disease of the articulating surfaces themselves. Even the name changed from ‘cox arthrosis’, a term used to describe hip pain, to ‘osteoarthritis of the hip’, a phrase referring directly to the bones of the joint.

Hip Joint x-rayThe field of radiology potentiated the practice of surgery on the bones of the hip because only bones were brightly visible on newly discovered x-rays. The surgical perspective shaped the practice of radiology, establishing parameters and protocols that reinforced the operative paradigm. Radiographs were acquired in carefully specified positions so the resulting images would reflect a particular skeletal perspective.

Other imaging technologies were developed, each building on the standard radiologic map of the hip. Today, so-called 3D images represent a grossly inaccurate picture of the true anatomy of the hip joint because they are constructed by software driven by an inaccurate set of assumptions. As a result, diseases are being diagnosed and surgically treated from images that do not reflect reality.

Athletes in their teens and twenties, as well as the elderly, are being subjected to unproven and dangerous operations by a surgical practice that changed the rules of traditional orthopedic medicine many years ago. Many will spend the latter part of their lives confined to wheelchairs. This is an urgent message the public needs to hear.

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Any woman with long-standing prolapse knows that Kegels do nothing to improve the symptoms of rectocele, cystocele, or uterine prolapse.

The only logical reason for Kegels improving symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (losing urine when sneezing, coughing, etc) is that they pull the bladder toward the vagina, thereby increasing the symptoms of cystocele.

Women with significant cystocele rarely experience severe urinary incontinence because the bladder bulge kinks off the urethra, much like a garden hose.

The Kegel PerineometerSo if Kegels do nothing to improve prolapse, why are they still touted year after year, decade after decade, since gynecologist Arnold Kegel and his perineometer made such a sensation in the 1950s?

The answer is because Dr. Kegel, and all of gynecology for that matter, have omitted and denied essential aspects of female anatomy that are crucial to understanding the dynamics of pelvic organ support. Why have they done this? Because gynecology has always been a surgical specialty that views the pelvis in a very limited way. Their conceptual framework of female pelvic anatomy does not include much beyond what they can see from the supine, lithotomy position (lying on your back with feet in stirrups).

To the gynecologist, you have a pelvic “floor” above which the pelvic organs are perched. From this perspective, the vagina acts like a tree trunk, holding the organs over a hole in a soft-tissue “floor” at the base of the torso. Because the vagina is holding the organs up, it must be “strong” and “tight” to prevent prolapse. The gynecologic point of view gives the pelvic surgeon license to perform operations based on faulty anatomic understanding.

In reality, your pelvic “floor” is more like a wall at the back of your body. Human pelvic orientation is not different than that of four-legged animals, a fact pointed out in the gynecologic literature in 1954 by J.W. Davies, M.D. Your pelvic organs are positioned over a truly strong pelvic floor, which are your pubic bones that come together underneath you like straps of a saddle.

Dr. Davies pointed out that if the human pelvis was really rotated backward 90º into a “bowl” shape with a “floor”, the pubic bones would dislocate with every step we took. Not only would it be excruciatingly painful to walk with the pelvis in this position, it would be impossible.

Davies’ research was completely ignored in the gynecologic literature until Dr. Linda Brubaker used his original illustrations to make the same point in her 1996 textbook, The Female Pelvic Floor. Unfortunately, the information had little impact and urogynecology has continued on under an antiquated and erroneous conception of female pelvic anatomy. To do otherwise would render all surgeries for prolapse and incontinence faulty and unsound.

Since the time man-midwifery took over the business of women’s health, knowledge about the female body has been placed solely in the hands of the medical profession. Our own bodies have become so mysterious, and the only major sources of information available to us come from practices based in anatomical misunderstanding.

This is why Whole Woman® has sourced knowledge from orthopedics, pediatrics, physics, the biological sciences, and even traditional dance. There is no understanding pelvic organ support outside the context of the whole body. When was the last time a gynecologist talked to you about the importance of natural breathing in preventing pelvic organ prolapse? You will not find this information anywhere else but at Whole Woman®. Yet, women intuitively know the Whole Woman® work is true, because they live it every day.

When a newborn baby girl comes into the world, her spine and funnel-shaped torso are completely straight. Her three pelvic organs and their channels: urethra/bladder, vagina/uterus, anorectum/sigmoid colon form three long lines, or axes, through this little abdominopelvic space. From the beginning she is raising internal pressures whenever she cries, poops, or is held upright. Yet, she is not in danger or her pelvic organs prolapsing because her respiratory diaphragm (the muscle layer underneath her lungs) and her pelvic diaphragm are made up of the same type and the same amount of muscle tissue, so the pressures simply bounce back and forth between the two sets of muscles.

Once she begins to stand and walk and run, her respiratory diaphragm grows very thick and strong and begins to send powerful bursts of pressure through her torso. These pressures don’t go down willy-nilly, but in a very specific pathway. With every in-breath, intra-abdominal pressure strikes against the inside of the lower abdominal wall. You can test this yourself by placing your hand a couple of inches below your navel and taking little coughs. You can feel the exact place intraabominal pressure strikes first before rebounding against the pelvic diaphragm.

Over the course of sixteen or seventeen years, the female pelvis becomes positioned at right angles to the abdominal wall so that the pelvic “floor” has now become a wall at the back of the body. This is only made possible by profound curvature in the lumbar spine, which is genetically more pronounced in females. Astonishingly, the three pelvic organs have also formed strong right angles away from their channels to become positioned right behind the lower belly. In this way, the pelvic organs are supported by the true bony pelvic floor and the lower belly, just as they are in four-legged animals. It is a profound truth that we are horizontal creatures from the hips down and vertical from the waist up.

Now it is easy to understand that contracting the vagina has nothing to do with pelvic organ support. The organs are carried behind the lower belly, and away from the pelvic outlet at the back of the body. Kegels merely draw the bladder and rectum toward the vagina, in other words, toward the direction of prolapse!

Please don’t think that it’s “bad” to contract those muscles. Strong vaginal contractions lead to orgasm and are wonderful to do in that setting, especially if a penis is supporting the vaginal walls to keep the pelvic organs in their proper positions. It’s just that laying on your back doing sets of Kegels can worsen prolapse symptoms.

Now that you understand more about your anatomy, you can see that any exercise aimed at reversing prolapse must be based in the dynamics of pelvic organ support. This means gravity, the breath, the natural shape of the spine, and the weight of the organs themselves.

So in the video below, I offer The New Kegel, which can be done in a chair, on all-fours, or standing. We are simply increasing the natural dynamics of intraabdominal pressure, and by way of the in-breath and lumbar curvature, moving the organs forward. Optimize the process with Whole Woman® posture by keeping your shoulders down (not back), chest lifted, upper back flat and broad, head pulled up through the back of the neck, and slightly tucking your chin.

Traditionally, women spent hours sitting while doing their work, and female anatomy is designed to move the organs forward even while sitting. However, you must keep a strong lumbar curvature and a relaxed lower belly during the process. Go ahead and sit for hours in front of your computer. Every now and then, throw a few New Kegels in to push your organs further forward.

If we lived in a perfect world, regaining pelvic organ support would be the easiest thing on earth. And you know what? It is.

Click here for The New Kegels video.








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A New Model of Core Stability

One of the things that makes human beings unique in nature is the way in which we manage intraabdominal pressure. Intraabdominal pressure is the force that is created through the torso as the lungs fill with air and the respiratory diaphragm moves downward.

When a cat sits, it leans the weight of its torso onto its front paws, and wraps its tail around its body, creating a stable platform. The reason it does not raise its paws off the ground is because it has not learned to stabilize the significant internal pressures moving through its body in the upright position. Doggies can be trained to lift their paws off the ground while seated, but they can only hold this position momentarily.

Humans developed the ability to utilize intraabdominal pressure to stiffen their torso so they could become stable in the upright seated position. In this way, their voice box became open for speech, and their hands were free to work. The human pelvis did not rotate backward on its axis to be able to sit or stand upright, but stayed in the same position as four-legged animals. Range of motion of the hip joints expanded to include external rotation, providing the tail-less human with a broad base from which to sit. Only by way of a wide-radius lumbar curvature did humans become upright.

The deepest muscles of the abdomen, the psoas and quadratus lumborum, share a common attachment site with the tendinous crura of the respiratory diaphragm. In the human, these muscles are “lordotic”, meaning they pull the lumbar spine forward each time the diaphragm contracts downward on the in-breath.

The pressure created as the diaphragm moves down reverberates through the torso in a very specific pathway. It first strikes the lower abdominal wall, before rebounding backward toward the pelvic wall. The distensibility of the central tendon of the pelvis, or perineal body, allows slight expansion and elastic recoil of the pelvic wall. The degrees to which the abdominal wall and perineum are chronically contracted through sub-optimal posture are directly correlated with the degree anatomic movement of intraabdominal pressure is compromised. Fully lengthened front and back body walls are how intraabdominal pressure is optimally managed in the human female body.

The notion that a therapeutic level of “core stability” of the lumbar spine could be achieved by maintaining the transversus abdomini muscles in constant contraction was put forth by a pair of Australian physiotherapists in 1996.1 The idea was that contraction of these muscles increases lateral tension on the thoracolumbar fascia, thus stabilizing the lumbar spine through an increase in intraabdominal pressure.2

The core stability studies of Hodges and Richardson have never been validated. Yet, the “core strength” movement they spawned so invested physiotherapy that to this day the idea of a stabilizing “core”, made up of the respiratory diaphragm, multifidi, transversus abdomini and pelvic “floor”, remains the major operating principle of the profession.

One of the primary problems with this conceptual framework is that it is an inaccurate representation of the way intraabdominal pressure actually moves through the torso. The “core” model views the respiratory diaphragm in opposition to the pelvic “floor”. Thus, there is an assumed direct relationship between downward descent of the diaphragm and descent of the levator ani. The reality is, the concept of “core” is not based in anatomic fact.

Moreover, the actual dynamics of intraabdominal pressure have been misunderstood by an entire culture of “core strength” enthusiasts. Anatomic movement of the diaphragm, abdominal and pelvic organs, and lumbar spine are optimized when the front and back body walls are lengthened, not shortened. Stability of the lumbar spine, and optimal placement of the pelvic organs, also increase when the torso is stiffened. Stiffening of the torso occurs when intraabdominal pressure is increased against its body walls, a dynamic that takes place when the walls are lengthened, not shortened.

The only way the “core strength” model would work is if we retained the straight-spine, funnel-shaped torso we are born with. In the infant, the pelvic outlet is opposite the respiratory diaphragm, as it is in the quadruped. By late puberty however, the human female pelvis has become positioned at right-angles to the abdominal wall. The pelvic organs and their channels, which once formed long, straight axes through the torso, have now become bi-axial, so that the organs are positioned over the pubic bones and against the lower abdominal wall.

The “core” model is simply irrelevant when considering the anatomy of the human female body. In reality, intraabdominal pressure coming down from the diaphragm strikes the lower belly, not the pelvic “floor.” The pelvic wall is positioned around the corner at the back of the body, and protected from the great majority of intraabdominal pressure.

One cannot speak of “proper posture” without considering how intraabdominal pressure moves through the body, how the pelvic organs are moved into their anatomic positions over the course of childhood, and how any level of chronically holding in the abdominal wall disrupts these natural dynamics.


Notes:

1 Hodges P Richardson C Inefficient muscular stabilization of the lumbar spine associated with low back pain. A motor control evaluation of transversus abdominis. Spine 21(22): 2640-2650 1996

2 Lee D The Pelvic Girdle – An approach to the examination and treatment of the lumbo-pelvic-hip region. Churchill Livingston 1999 p. 60

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